AMB Express. Gut Microbiota in Health and Disease. Macrolide resistance genes in Enterococcus spp. To conclude, although the scope of our study was limited, it is reassuring to note that we failed to detect significant associations between the consumption of meat and antibiotic resistance determinants in the gastrointestinal flora. Physiol Rev. Fig 1. Hubert Endtz. Notably, the large use of antibiotics in food animals and aquaculture has resulted in the increase of resistant bacteria in the environment, soil and water bodies, and consequently in the possible contamination of crops and vegetables [ 15, 49 ]. Genetic determinants and elements associated with antibiotic resistance in viridans group streptococci.
The human gastrointestinal flora is affected by probiotics such as lactobacilli, the use of antibiotics and, last but not least, dietary habits. This happens not only for patients, but may also occur when antibiotics are used as growth promoters in modern food-animal production. Such questions could be answered by designing studies that compare the faecal flora of vegetarians and that of meat-eating controls. We performed a large study to determine the presence of vancomycin-resistant microorganisms in the faecal flora of vegetarians in The results documented a statistically significant difference in the ocurrence of low-level VRE such as Enterococcus casseliflavus and Enterococcus gallinarum in vegetarians versus controls. No association was found between meat consumption and carriage of high-level VRE, as opposed to analyses by another Dutch group.
The difference in gut microbiota composition between individuals following vegan or vegetarian diets and those following omnivorous diets is well documented. A plant-based diet appears to be beneficial for human health by promoting the development of more diverse and stable microbial systems. Additionally, vegans and vegetarians have significantly higher counts of certain Bacteroidetes -related operational taxonomic units compared to omnivores. Fibers that is, non-digestible carbohydrates, found exclusively in plants most consistently increase lactic acid bacteria, such as Ruminococcus, E. Polyphenols, also abundant in plant foods, increase Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus, which provide anti-pathogenic and anti-inflammatory effects and cardiovascular protection. High fiber intake also encourages the growth of species that ferment fiber into metabolites as short-chain fatty acids SCFAs, including acetate, propionate, and butyrate. The positive health effects of SCFAs are myriad, including improved immunity against pathogens, blood—brain barrier integrity, provision of energy substrates, and regulation of critical functions of the intestine. This review will focus on effects of different diets and nutrient contents, particularly plant-based diets, on the gut microbiota composition and production of microbial metabolites affecting the host health.
Diet can affect the diversity and composition of gut microbiota. Usage of antibiotics in food production and in human or veterinary medicine has resulted in the emergence of commensal antibiotic resistant bacteria in the human gut. The incidence of erythromycin-resistant lactic acid bacteria LAB in the feces of healthy vegans, ovo-lacto vegetarians and omnivores was analyzed. Overall, LAB were isolated and characterized for their phenotypic and genotypic resistance to erythromycin.